About Blood Glucose :

Glucose is the chief origin of energy in humans and it is crucial for normal functioning.  When there is a rise or fall in the blood glucose levels it leads to different medical conditions. 

Diabetes mellitus is one such condition that is seen when there is a rise in the blood sugar levels.  It is essential to manage blood sugars appropriately with the assistance of a healthcare expert by making sure that the blood sugar levels are properly regulated.

Maintenance of Blood Glucose Levels:

All About Blood Glucose Levels

The primary recognition of treating diabetes is by maintaining blood glucose levels inside the normal or ordinary range.  This may be executed by way of balancing meals with exercises, lifestyle choices and diabetes medications.

By frequently keeping track of blood glucose levels, it assists you to recognize the link between blood glucose, diet, exercise and medication (insulin).  This differs from individual to individual based totally on their requirement and extent of diabetes.

With new technology in the form of glucose meters, checking and keeping track of blood sugar levels at home has become effortless.  Self-monitoring enables you to check sugar levels as and when one pleases or according to the advice of a healthcare expert.  Over time your readings will offer you and your health expert with the data required to decide best first-class management approach for your diabetes.

Maintaining a desirable blood glucose control is your best defense to decrease the likelihood of extending difficulties from diabetes.  Blood sugar levels are reports in millimoles per liter (mmol/L) in the UK and most countries and milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) in the US.

Monitoring Blood Glucose Levels

Blood sugar levels can be monitored by checking regularly or according to the advice of a healthcare expert.  It differs from individual to individual, the diabetic medications prescribed, the dosage of insulin consumed and advice of a healthcare expert.

Usually, blood sugar levels are checked preprandial i.e. before meals, postprandial i.e. after meals, two hours after each meal, before going to bed, and when you are sick and not feeling well.

{Also Read: How To Control Blood Sugar Naturally and Fast ? }

Blood Glucose Level Ranges

Along with the knowledge of maintaining and monitoring blood glucose levels, an individual with diabetes should also be aware of the normal ranges of blood glucose levels.

These ranges differ based on

  • age,

  • duration of illness,

  • medications prescribed,   and any other medical condition or complication.  It is better to consult with a healthcare expert regarding individual target ranges.

The following chart will help in understanding the target blood glucose ranges for adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and children with type 1 diabetes.



Upon Waking

Before Meals(preprandial)

After Meals (postprandial)




4.0 – 5.9 mmol/L

under 7.8/mmol/L

Type 2 diabetes


4 – 7 mmol/Left

under 8.5/mmol/L

Type 1 diabetes


5 – 7 mmol/L

4 – 7 mmol/Left

5 – 9 mmol/Left

Children with type 1 diabetes

4 – 7 mmol/L

4 – 7 mmol/Left

5 – 9 mmol/Left

The normal blood glucose level lies in the range of 4.0 – 7.8 mmol/L.  For healthy individuals without the diagnosis of diabetes, the normal blood sugar levels are as follows:

  • Between 4.0 to 6.0 mmol/L (72 – 108 mg/dL) preprandial or before a meal

  • Up to 7.8 mmol/L (140 mg/dL) 2 hours postprandial or after a meal

The following chart will help in understanding the benchmark for blood glucose ranges when diagnosing diabetes or prediabetes:


Plasma Glucose Test





Below 11.1 mmol/L

Below 200 mg/dL


11.1 mmol/L or more


Below 6.1 mmol/L

Below 108 mmol/L

6.1 – 6.9 mmol/L

108 – 125 mg/dL

7.0 mmol/L or more

126 mg/dL or more

2-hours postprandial

Below 7.8 mmol/L

Below 140 mg/dL

7.8 – 11.0 mmol/L

140-199 mg/dL

11.1 mmol/L or more

200 mg/dL or more

Majority of the blood sugar charts set recommended levels as the range, making an allowance for differences between individual to individual.  The following chart will help in understanding the guidelines to maintain a blood sugar chart as levels vary from person to person depending on the time of the day.


Time of Check

Blood Sugar levels for those without diabetes

Blood Sugar levels for those with diabetes

Fasting (before breakfast)

less than 100 mg/dL

80-130 mg/dL

70-130 mg/dL

Less than 110

Before Meals

less than 110 mg/dL

70-130 mg/dL

2 hours after meals

less than 140 mg/dL

less than 180 mg/dL

1-2 hours after meals


less than 140


less than 120 mg/dL

between 90-150 mg/dL

A1c Levels

less than 5.7%

less than 7%

Types of Blood Tests

Chart to understand Blood Glucose ranges for Diabetes and Pre-diabetes Condition

Some of the types of test that can be taken to monitor blood sugar levels and also to diagnose whether it is type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

A random plasma glucose test can be taken by obtaining a blood sample.  This test is used to diagnose type 1 diabetes.

A fasting plasma glucose test is obtained after 8 hours of fasting and blood samples are collected early in the morning.

When taking an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), first a fasting blood sample is collected and a sweet drink is consumed.  After approximately 2 hours, another blood sample is collected.

To diagnose diabetes HbA1c test is also undertaken.  It measures the average blood sugar levels over 3-month durations.


In conclusion, it is essential to take full advantage of equipment that is readily available and easy to use to take good care of blood sugar levels. 

With the help of a healthcare professional and a little self-management, blood sugar levels can be monitored to make sure that it lies in the normal range, as a rise in the blood sugar level could lead to severe complications including damage to kidney, nerves, heart, etc.

Blood sugar level management may differ from individual to individual depending on life expectancy, age, the severity of diabetes, cardiac disease, etc.

It is necessary to have regular consultations with your healthcare professional and relate all the information regarding blood sugar levels on a regular basis.  This helps in better management of diabetes.

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